Tags: crypto HSCTF-2022

Problem Description:

the one-time pad (OTP) is an encryption technique that cannot be cracked Wikipedia

We’re given an output, consisting of the bit-length of a randomly generated number, and the flag xored with that number. We’re also given the program used to generate the number:

import random
from Crypto.Util.number import bytes_to_long

def secure_seed():
	x = 0
	# x is a random integer between 0 and 100000000000
	for i in range(10000000000):
		x += random.randint(0, random.randint(0, 10))
	return x

flag = open('flag.txt','rb').read()
flag = bytes_to_long(flag)


l = len(bin(flag)) - 1

k = random.getrandbits(l)
flag = flag ^ k # super secure encryption

The function secure_seed() is defined weirdly. It adds 10 billion values of x together, where x is a random integer between 0 and a random integer between 0 and 10. Since you’re doing this 10 billion times, there must be some sort of statistical analysis you can do here. Testing this with smaller amounts of x added together, we see that it tends towards 2.5*n, where n is the amount of x you’re adding together. Using the smaller amounts of x we calculated earlier, and graphing the deviations on desmos, we can calculate the deviation of n=10,000,000,000 to be around 250k. Therefore, we can write the following code to brute force the seed that encrypts the flag.

import random
n = 250000
x = 25000000000 - n
fleg = 444466166004822947723119817789495250410386698442581656332222628158680136313528100177866881816893557
for i in range(2*n):
    x += 1
    k = random.getrandbits(328)
    flag = fleg^k
    binary_array = flag.to_bytes(41, "big")
        ascii_text = binary_array.decode()
    except (UnicodeDecodeError):
        a = 0

Which outputs the flag: flag{c3ntr4l_l1m1t_th30r3m_15431008597}